In today’s post-Cold War world, security covers numerous areas to include: religious-cultural, socio-economic, and politico-military concerns. Some of the positive aspects of the post-Cold War world are the increased economic integration of free markets, technologies, and even countries (as in the European Union). Some negative aspects include the idea that the security environment is enduring an “unstable peace” and a certain amount of chaos exists caused by a myriad of political instabilities and folks seeking to cause more destabilization.Continuing global economic integration is clashing with global political violence. General causes of instabilities tend to be exploited by bad guys such as rogue states, insurgents, terrorists, political actors, drug traffickers, organized crime syndicates, militant fundamentalists, and many others with a cause and will to impose their self-determined desires to change a society, nation-state, or other perceived source of power, in an image that fits their ideology.
To ensure their survival nation-states like Bangladesh have to wield their power, through many different means; some states, obviously, are more capable having more means than others. Determining how best to wield powers of state and against whom to wield power is one of the main tenets of security policy. Leaders of states have to determine what are the interests of the state vis-à-vis the people it represents and take into consideration threats the state faces. With the security of the state, and hopefully more so the security of the people, being paramount, a brief survey of the types of threats confronting nation-states seems rather appropriate.
Threats to nation-states will most likely come from one or more of three types: internal (locally disaffected persons), external (hostile neighbors) or asymmetric (Weapon of Mass Destructions, Cyber/Infrastructure attacks, Drug traffickers, ultra-criminals, and terrorists). Threats Bangladesh is likely to face over the coming decades fit within this construct. Notable are: proliferation of drugs and arms, growth of organized crime, disenchanted minorities (ethnic and religious) resulting in insurgency, foreign intelligence services using Bangladesh to their advantage, insurgents from neighboring north-east India attempting to hide-out, and the rise of religious fundamentalism attempting to win power through revolution. Arrayed against Bangladesh are robust threats that should concern its leaders. Leaders should consider how these threats are more or less likely to arise, and how to combat or, even better; prevent these threats from becoming immediate dangers.
One main cause of concern currently being focused on throughout the world is the view that globalization is a security threat to the state and permits the proliferation of the threats stated above. It seems easy to just throw the woes of the world, all the security concerns at the feet of a newly contrived word--globalization. “At times, it reaches a level where all the ills of the country, including pollution and deforestation, even minority bashing and the sale of gas, are explained by finger pointing at the forces of globalization.” Essential to being able to blame this new word would be a tacit understanding of what is meant by it.
Bangladesh as a developing country is not immune to the challenges of globalization. In the era of globalization, she is confronted with threats emanating from both external and internal sources. Under the impact of globalization, development and economic security perception in Bangladesh has undergone some perceptible changes over the past few years. Bangladesh faces vital challenges in terms of ecological integrity, financial stability, identity and social cohesion from national, regional and global levels. The country needs to protect her socio-economic, political and environmental interests to face the challenges in the era of globalization. There is a cogent need to broaden the scope for prosperity through the creation of a modern and efficient economy. The challenge before the country is how to attain this goal in an environment where major economic decisions affecting national life are often determined by the international market.
Economic globalization is a process of rapid economic integration between countries that is driven by the increasing liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment. Liberalization of the economy in Bangladesh seemed an inevitable measure to meet the economic challenges of globalization. Whether it has derived benefits for the country or not remains a point to be analyzed